Pressure groups are interest groups that have the interest of their members at heart and also have the power to influence the government and government policies by their actions. The members of pressure groups normally have the same interest. They put pressure on the government to achieve its goals. Pressure groups do not try to take over governance. Normally, members of pressure groups are bound together by professions, hence they do not recruit members. In Nigeria, there are many pressure groups. They include the Nigerian Bar Association(NBA), the Academic Staff Union of Universities(ASUU), the National Association of Nigerian Students(NANS), the Nigerian Medical Association(NMA), and so many others. In this article, the different types of pressure groups in Nigeria would be addressed.
The types of Pressure groups in Nigeria would be discussed below:
Professional or Occupational Pressure Group
Professional or occupational pressure groups are pressure groups whose members are of the same occupation or profession. This pressure group works for the betterment of their professional interest and strives to protect the goal of their profession.
When the government creates policies that do not favour them, they tend to react and fight against the policy. Although the members of this type of pressure group might not be large in number, they have the power through their campaigns to be able to achieve their goals.
Examples of professional or occupational pressure groups are the Nigerian Medical Association(NMA), the Nigerian Union of Teachers(NUT), the Nigerian Bar Association(NBA), and so many others.
An economic pressure group is the type of pressure group that seeks to protect and defend the economic well-being and interest of its members. This type of pressure group is concerned about the overall welfare of the people in the country. They see to it that government policies are favourable to the economic welfare of the citizens. They try to influence these government policies to ensure their objectives are met.
In this type of pressure group, you would likely find manufacturers and producers. Members of economic pressure groups fight against any negative policy that is to the detriment of the people. Examples of this type of pressure group include the Manufacturers Association of Nigeria(MAN), and the Nigerian Association of Chambers of Commerce, Industry, Mines and Agriculture(NACCIMA).
A religious pressure group is formed to protect and defend the religious interests of its members by influencing certain government policies to favour them. This type of pressure group strives to protect its religious beliefs and practices. Members of religious pressure groups ensure that public policies concerning their religion are at their advantage at all times.
Examples of religious pressure groups in Nigeria include the Christian Association of Nigeria(CAN), and the Nigerian Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs(NSCIA). The Christian Association of Nigeria(CAN) is a religious pressure group that defends and protects the different religious beliefs of Christians in Nigeria. They also fight against any government policy that doesn’t favour them. On the other hand, the Nigerian Supreme Council for Islamic Affairs(NSCIA) is the pressure group that fights and defends the religious beliefs and practices of Muslims in Nigeria.
A social pressure group is the type of pressure group that is formed by young people in the country who are fighting for and defending their interests thereby influencing government policies that favour its members. Examples of this type of pressure group include the Red Cross Society, Boys Scouts, Girls Brigade, and many others.
Educational Pressure Group
Educational pressure groups are pressure groups that strive to protect and defend the educational rights and interests of their members. They do this by influencing certain government policies that affect them negatively and fighting these policies so they favour their set objectives.
Examples of educational pressure groups include the National Association of Nigerian Students(NANS), Academic Staff Union of Universities(ASUU), Academic Staff Union of Polytechnics(ASUP), and so on.
Anomic pressure groups are pressure groups that are not organized and structured. They are known to use demonstrations, protests, strikes, violence and other vices to fight for their groups’ objectives. Members of these pressure groups normally organise street demonstrations and protests to achieve a common goal immediately.
Promotional Pressure Group
Promotional pressure groups are pressure groups formed to achieve a goal and benefit that does not benefit the members directly. They strive to pursue a common cause that is of benefit to people in society. Examples of promotional pressure groups are human rights groups, groups that fight against discrimination, and many other associations.
Ethnic pressure groups are pressure groups that fight for the common good of their ethnic group. Examples of Ethnic pressure groups in Nigeria include Ijaw Youth Council(IJC), Ohanaeze Ndigbo, Afenifere, Arewa Consultative Forum(ACF), and many others.
The Ijaw Youth Council(IJC), is an ethnic pressure group that was founded in December 1998 in Bayelsa state, Nigeria. It was founded to defend and fight for the civic rights of the Ijaw people. In the South-South region, this ethnic pressure group is one of the most active and influential.
The Ohanaeze Ndigbo is another powerful ethnic pressure group in Nigeria. They fight for the civic rights of the Igbo people. In the eastern part of Nigeria, they are considered the most powerful and influential ethnic pressure group.
The Afenifere is an ethnic pressure group in Nigeria that fights for and protect the rights and interest of the Yoruba people in the country and even outside the country. This pressure group was founded in 1993.
The Arewa Consultative Forum(ACF) Is the ethnic pressure group that is considered the most powerful and influential in the northern part of Nigeria. It was founded in March 2000 with the aim of promoting and maintaining the unity of the northern people in the northern regions of the country.
Another ethnic pressure group in Nigeria is the Middle Belt Forum(MBF). This ethnic pressure group is the ethnic pressure group of the people in the middle belt of Nigeria. This ethnic pressure group strives to protect and effectively liberate their people from the dominance of other regions and zones in the country most especially the northern region of the country